Queen Elizabeth I united the white and brown bakers to form The Worshipful Company of Bakers.
A colony established by Walter Raleigh first grew wheat in North Carolina in 1585. North America would eventually become one of the main producers and exporters of grains.
A bakers’ protest against an English bill stipulating that the baker’s name should be marked on every loaf as it had been in Roman times.
The Great Fire of London, said to have been started by a baker, totally destroyed the milling and baking industry in the capital.
Mainly in Britain, wheat began to overtake rye and barley as the chief bread grain. In the Mediterranean and Southern Europe, bread was still largely made out wheat for the nobility and a mixture of barley and wheat for the lower classes.
A new Act superseded the Assize of 1266. British magistrates were empowered to control the type, weight and price of loaves. Only white, wheaten (wholemeal) and 'household' bread were permitted ('household' bread was made from low grade flour).
A report accused bakers of adulterating bread by using alum lime, chalk and powdered bones to keep it very white. The British Parliament banned alum and all other additives in bread but some bakers ignored the ban.
Bread prices influenced most of the several causes of the French Revolution. Especially after 1780, France was riddled with problems related to bread production and prices. By 1789 the price of bread increased by 88% instigating a popular ‘bread riot’.